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    You have 2 know every thing about your FAther...

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    Refmticine
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    عدد الرسائل : 171
    العمر : 29
    تاريخ التسجيل : 09/10/2007

    default You have 2 know every thing about your FAther...

    مُساهمة من طرف Refmticine في الجمعة أكتوبر 19, 2007 6:05 pm

    Born on August 3, 1923 in Asyut, Upper Egypt, he is the youngest of a family of eight children. By the age of 16, Pope Shenouda was active in the Coptic Sunday School movement.

    Mr. Gayed was very active in his church and served as a Sunday School teacher, first at Saint Anthony's Church in Shoubra and then at Saint Mary's Church in Mahmasha.

    After graduating from Cairo University with a degree in history, he worked as a high school English and Social Studies teacher in Cairo by day, and attended classes at the Coptic Theological Seminary by night. Upon graduation from the seminary in 1949, he was chosen to teach New Testament Studies.

    MONASTIC LIFE AND EDUCATIONAL SRVICE..

    On July 18, 1954, Mr. Gayed was led to the monastic life at the Syrian Monastery in Scetes; he was given the name of Father Antonios el-Syriani (Anthony the Syrian, or Anthony of the Syrian Monastery). For six years, from 1956 to 1962, he lived a life of solitude in a cave about seven miles away from the monastery, dedicating all his time to meditation, prayer, and asceticism. Antonios el-Syriani was among the candidates nominated for the papal throne in 1956, but Pope Cyril VI was the one ultimately chosen for the post.

    ORDINATION AS A BISHOP

    On 30 September 1962,[1]Pope Cyril VI appointed Fr. Antonios the Syrian to the bishopric of Christian Education and as Dean of the Coptic Orthodox Theological Seminary, whereupon he called him Shenouda. The relevence of the name emanates from the fact that the most renowned scholar and writer in Coptic was Saint Shenouda the Archimandrite.

    Under Bishop Shenouda's leadership, the number of students at the Coptic Orthodox Theological Seminary tripled[2]. Bishop Shenouda was suspended in 1966 by Pope Cyril VI.[2], [3] This was essentially the result of Bishop Shenouda's (as well as his students') enthusiastic 'campaigns for change' that used rather strong words, such as supporting peoples' right to choose their bishops and priests, a principle that Bishop Shenouda later applied when he became Pope of Alexandria. This conflict between Pope Cyril VI and Bishop Shenouda was later been resolved.

    ENTHTRONING A BISHOP AS POPE

    Some argue that the choice of Pope Shenouda III as Pope (and Bishop) of the City of Alexandria is not canonical (against Canon 15 of Nicea and other Church Councils and Canons), because His Holiness was already a bishop (without episcopate) in the 1960s.[4], [5] However, there are also modern day examples from other Churches of patriarchs who were previously bishops before their election as patriarchs, e.g., [1], [2].

    This issue has caused an ongoing dispute since 1928 in the Coptic Orthodox Church, and although the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria has considered in the 1960s the General Bishops to be secretaries to the Pope in the degree of a Bishop, Pope Shenouda III, who was a general Bishop before, is sometimes considered to be the fourth Bishop to become a Pope after Popes John XIX (1928-1942), Macarius III (1942-1944) and Joseph II (1946-1956).

    THE ETHIOPIAN CHURCH CRISIS

    Following the arrest, imprisonment and subsequent execution of Abune Tewophilos, Patriarch of Ethiopia, by the Marxist Derg regime that had deposed Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974, Pope Shenouda III refused to recognize the cleric who was installed as the Ethiopian Patriarch's successor. He argued that the removal of Patriarch Abune Tewophilos was illegal and un-canonical, and that in the eyes of the Church of Alexandria and the Pope of Alexandria, Abune Tewophilos remained the legitimate Patriarch of Ethiopia.

    As the government of Ethiopia refused to acknowledge that the Patriarch had been executed, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria refused to recognize any other Patriarch as long as Abune Tewophilos was not confirmed dead. Thus formal ties between the Churches of Alexandria and Ethiopia were severed although they remain in full communion.

    PERIOD OF EXILE
    On September 3, 1981, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat ordered Pope Shenouda into exile at the Monastery of Saint Pishoy after Pope Shenouda's refusal in spring 1981 to hold public Church celebrations of Easter and to receive that year the President's delegates who are regularly sent to greet the Church and Coptic Orthodox Christians on such occasions (this move by Pope Shenouda III was very embarrassing to President Sadat, both nationally and internationally).

    In addition, eight bishops, twenty-four priests, and many other prominent Copts were placed under arrest. Sadat replaced the church hierarchy with a committee of five bishops and referred to Pope Shenouda as the "ex-Pope." On January 2, 1985, more than three years after Sadat's 1981 assassination, President Hosni Mubarak released Pope Shenouda from exile. He returned to Cairo to celebrate the January 7th Christmas liturgy to a crowd of more than ten thousand

    POLITICAL STANCE

    Another major difference of opinions between Sadat and Pope Shenouda III is the attitude of the latter regarding the normalization of the relations between Egypt and Israel, and His Holiness' very prominent Arab nationalist zeal. In fact, there is currently (as of 2006) a papal decree issued by Pope Shenouda III that anathematizes any Copt who dares to visit the Christian holy places in Jerusalem and Israel.[6] According to that decree, such Copts are automatically banned from receiving Holy Communion in the Coptic Orthodox Church, with no venue or mechanism being offered to them for repentance and lifting of this ban. Pope Shenouda III has repeatedly declared that Christians must only visit Jerusalem hand in hand with their Muslim brothers after the conflict with Israel is resolved to the satisfaction of all parties.

    Because of this highly unusual decision, many Copts, especially in the diaspora, have accused the Pope of mixing religious matters (the ban on receiving Holy Communion if one visits Jerusalem for pilgrimage) with political ones (the Arab-Israeli conflict), and consider this papal decree unjustified, without ecclesiastical, canonical or dogmatic foundation. These Copts consider that this ban also affects the credibility of the Pontiff's doctrinal decision making, impaired by mixing political affinities with his position as the Pope of Alexandria.

    THEOLOGICAL DISPUTES

    Certain theological disputes involving HH Pope Shenouda III have recently come to the attention of the mainstream secular news media in Egypt [4]. HH Pope Shenouda III is said to be totally denying the Orthodox concept and doctrine of theosis (even the word/term), teaching instead 'Scholastic Theology' doctrines (esp. in relation to original sin, redemption and salvation), and repeating arguments previously attributed verbatim to Nestorius (in relation to the Eucharist, and that 'Divinity' cannot be born of the Virgin Mary), as well as adopting some Arian thoughts, claiming that Christ's glory mentioned in John 16 and 17 is not the same as God's divine glory, but mere human/priesthood glory,[5] [6] and Sabellian/unitarian thinking (that the trinity are mere aspects, not distinct persons). These allegations against HH Pope Shenouda III remain without proof from His Holiness' declarations or writings.

    Some of Pope Shenouda's writings are said to show hints of monothelitism.[7] These teachings are supposed to be in conflict with the teachings of the Fathers, esp. Cyril the Great and Athanasius of Alexandria.

    Pope Shenouda's longstanding theological disputes with the late Father Matta El-Meskeen, as well as with the Egyptian theologian Habib Bebawi, are well known.

    Commitment to Christian Unity

    In 1973, Pope Shenouda III became the first Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria to meet the Pope of Rome in over 1500 years. In this visit, Popes Shenouda III and Pope Paul VI signed a common declaration on the issue of Christology and agreed to further discussions on Christian unity. There have also been dialogues with various Protestant churches worldwide.

    Pope Shenouda III is well known for his deep commitment to Christian unity. In an address he gave at an ecumenical forum during the International Week of Prayer in 1974, he declared, "The whole Christian world is anxious to see the church unite. Christian people, being fed up with divisions, are pushing their church leaders to do something about church unity and I am sure that the Holy Spirit is inspiring us."

    Under his leadership, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has become a full member of the World Council of Churches, the Middle East Council of Churches, the All-African Council of Churches, the National Council of the Churches in Christ in the U.S.A., the Canadian Council of Churches, and the Australian Council of Churches. In May 2000, he established the Office of Ecumenical Affairs, in the Archdiocese of North America.

    Pope Shenouda III has emphasized Christian Unity in his work, believing it to be founded upon a unity of faith and not of jurisdiction. As a result, he has paid many visits to the various sister Orthodox churches and their patriarchs, such as those of Constantinople, Moscow, Romania, and Antioch, with the goal of a full communion of these churches with the Oriental Orthodox Churches.

    He also won, in the year 2000, the UNESCO Madanjeet Singh prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence by UNESCO Director-General Koichiro Matsuura on the recommendation of an international jury.

    God PROTECTS HIM..

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      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأربعاء ديسمبر 13, 2017 6:30 am